The following is a collection of publications relevant to the research to which this blog pertains. The sources are ordered by category (General; Enforcement in area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ); Competition Law; Enforcement in Financial Markets) and then alphabetically, according to the first author’s surname. The category ‘General’ contains articles that are either on EU law enforcement in general or on policy areas other than the Enforcement in AFSJ, Competition Law or Enforcement in Financial Markets. Click here to jump down to Enforcement in AFSJ, Competition Law or Enfocerment in Financial Markets. Please feel free to contact one of the editors concerning any relevant publication that may be added to this list.


Paul Almond & Mike Esbester, ‘Regulatory inspection and the changing legitimacy of health and safety’, Regulation & Governance (2017)

Ayres I and Braithwaite J, Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate (Oxford University Press 1992)

Baldwin R, ‘Why Rules Don’t Work’ (1990) 53 Modern Law Review 321

Baldwin R and Black J, ‘Really Responsive Regulation’ (2008) 71 The Modern Law Review 59

Baldwin R, Cave M and Lodge M, Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy, and Practice (OUP Oxford 2012)

Barnard C and Peers S, European Union Law (Oxford University Press 2020)

Lincey Bastings, Ellen Mastenbroek & Esther Versluis, The other face of Eurolegalism: The multifaceted convergence of national enforcement styles, Regulation & Governance, 11(3)

M. Bauer & J. Trondal (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of the European Administrative System (Springer)

de Boer N, ‘Street-level enforcement style: A multidimensional measurement instrument’ (2019) 42(5) International Journal of Public Administration 380

de Boer N et al, ‘Does disclosure of performance information influence street‐level bureaucrats’ enforcement style?’ (2018) 78(5) Public Administration Review 694

Binder T, Karagianni A and Scholten M, ‘Emergency – But What about Legal Protection in the EU’ (2018) 9 European Journal of Risk Regulation (EJRR) 99

Black J, ‘The Emergence of Risk-Based Regulation and the New Public Risk Management in the United Kingdom’ 37

Blanc F and Faure M, ‘Smart Enforcement: Theory and Practice’ (2018) 20 European Journal of Law Reform [vii]

Blanc F and Faure M, ‘Smart Enforcement in the EU’ (2020) 23(11) Journal of Risk Research 1405

Mark Bovens, The Quest for Responsibility – Accountability and Citizenship in Complex Organisations (Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Brandsma GJ and Joosen R, ‘Transnational Executive Bodies: Very Effective but Hardly Accountable? – EU Law Enforcement’

Cacciatore F and Scholten M, ‘Introduction to the Symposium on Institutional Innovations in the Enforcement of EU Law and Policies’ (2019) 10 European Journal of Risk Regulation 435

Fabrizio Cafaggi & Hans-W. Micklitz, ‘Collective Enforcement of Consumer Law: A Framework for Comparative Assessment’ (2008) 16 European Review of Private Law 391

David P. Carter, ‘Role perceptions and attitudes toward discretion at a decentralized regulatory frontline: The case of organic inspectors’ (2017) Regulation & Governance 11.4

Merijn Chamon, ‘Granting powers to EU decentralised agencies, three years following Short-selling’ ERA Forum June 2018, Volume 18, Issue 4

Conteras Condezo JG, Kingma A and Scholten M, ‘Putting Dawn Raids under Control’ (2020) 22 Yearbook of Antitrust and Regulatory Studies 145

Coslovsky, S et al, ‘The pragmatic politics of regulatory enforcement’ in Levi-Faur, D (ed), Handbook on the Politics of Regulation (Edward Elgar 2011)

Paul Craig, EU Administrative Law (3rd edition, Oxford University Press, 2018)

Paul Craig, ‘Shared Administration, Disbursement of Community Funds and the Regulatory State’ in Herwig Hofmann & Alexander Türk (eds.), Legal Challenges in EU Administrative Law: Towards an Integrated Administration (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009)

Cremona M, Compliance and the Enforcement of EU Law (OUP Oxford 2012)

Giacinto Della Cananea, ‘The European Union’s Mixed Administrative Proceedings’ (2004) 68 Law and Contemporary Problems 197

Dewey,M and Di Carlo D, ‘Governing through non‐enforcement: Regulatory forbearance as industrial policy in advanced economies’ (2021) Regulation & Governance

Sara Drake & Melanie Smith (Eds.), New Directions in the Effective Enforcement of EU Law and Policy (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016)

Claire A. Dunlop, Jonathan C. Kamkhaji & Claudio M. Radaelli, ‘Regulators and Reform: A Quasi-experimental Assessment of the Effects of Training Inspectors’, International Public Management Journal 18.2

Eliantonio M and Vogiatzis N, ‘Judicial and Extra-judicial Challenges in the EU Multi- and Cross-level Administrative Framework ‘ (2021) 22(Special Issue 3) German Law Journal 315 

Mariolina Eliantonio, ‘Judicial Review in an Integrated Administration: The Case of ‘composite procedures” (2014) 7 Review of European Administrative Law 65

Julien Etienne, ‘The Politics of Detection in Business Regulation’ (2014), Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 25.1

Etienne, J, ‘Different ways of blowing the whistle: Explaining variations in decentralized enforcement in the UK and France’ (2015) 9(4) Regulation & Governance 309

Michael Faure, Peter de Smedt & An Stas, ‘Environmental Enforcement Networks – Concepts, Implementation and Effectiveness’ (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006)

Andreas Follesdal & Simon Hix, ‘Why There is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik’ (2006) 44 Journal of Common Market Studies 533

Martijn Groenleer, The Autonomy of European Union Agencies: A Comparative Study of Institutional Development (Eburon, 2009)

Carol Harlow & Richard Rawlings, ‘Promoting Accountability in Multilevel Governance: A Network Approach’ (2007) 13 European Law Journal 542

Carol Harlow, Päivi Leino and Giacinto della Cananea, ‘Research Handbook on EU Administrative Law’ (2017) (Edward Elgar Publishing)

Martin Hedemann-Robinson, ‘Enforcement of European Union Environmental Law: Legal Issues and Challenges’, European Law Review 2018, 43(2)

Herwig Hofmann & Alessandro Morini, ‘Constitutional Aspects of the Pluralisation of the EU Executive through ‘Agencification’’ (2012) University of Luxembourg Law Working Paper No. 2012-01

Herwig Hofmann, Gerard Rowe & Alexander Türk, Administrative Law and Policy of the European Union (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Herwig Hofmann, ‘Composite Decision Making Procedures in EU Administrative Law’ in Herwig Hofmann & Alexander Türk (eds.), Legal Challenges in EU Administrative Law: Towards an Integrated Administration (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009)

Herwig Hofmann, ‘Decision making in EU Administrative Law – The Problem of Composite Procedures’ (2009) 61 Administrative Law Review 199

Herwig Hofmann & Alexander Türk, ‘The Development of Integrated Administration in the EU and its Consequences’ (2007) 13 European Law Journal 253

Huizinga Kees and de Bree M, ‘Exploring the Risk of Goal Displacement in Regulatory Enforcement Agencies: A Goal-Ambiguity Approach’ (2021) Public Performance & Management Review 1

Hupe P, Hill M and Buffat A (eds), Understanding Street-Level Bureaucracy (Policy Press 2015

Hutter, BM, ‘Variations in regulatory enforcement styles’ (1989) 11(2) Law & Policy 153

Jan Jans, Sacha Prechal & Rob Widdershoven, Europeanisation of Public Law (Europa Law Publishing, 2015)

Jan Jans, Sacha Prechal & Rob Widdershoven, Inleiding tot het Europees bestuursrecht (Ars Aequi Libri, 2017)

Rik Joosen & Gijs Jan Brandsma, ‘Transnational executive bodies: EU policy implementation between the EU and member state level’ (2017)

Jordanoska A, ‘Regulatory enforcement against organizational insiders: Interactions in the pursuit of individual accountability’ (2021) 15 Regulation and Governance 298

Kafteranis D, ‘Enforcing EU Law: The Case of the Whistle-Blower – EU Law Enforcement’

Olivier Linden, Reforming compliance management in the Single Market – Discussion on a decentralised enforcement of EU law (National Board of Trade Sweden 2019)

Kahneman, D and Tversky, A (eds), Choices, Values, and Frames (Cambridge University Press 2000)

Kagan RA, ‘Editor’s introduction: Understanding regulatory enforcement’ (1989) 11(2) Law & Policy 89

Karagianni A and Scholten M, ‘Accountability Gaps in the Single Supervisory Mechanism SSM Framework Research Article’ (2018) 34 Utrecht Journal of International and European Law 185

David M. Konisky & Christopher Reenock, ‘Regulatory Enforcement, Riskscapes, and Environmental Justice’ (2017) Policy Studies Journal

Maggetti M, ‘Interest Groups and the (Non-)Enforcement Powers of EU Agencies: The Case of Energy Regulation’ (2019) 10 European Journal of Risk Regulation 458

Malmberg, Jonas, et al. Effective enforcement of EC labour law. Kluwer Law International, 2003.

May PJ and Winter SC, ‘Regulatory enforcement styles and compliance’ in Parker C and Lehmann V, Explaining Compliance: Business Responses to Regulation (Edward Elgar 2011)

Adrienne de Moor-van Vugt, ‘Administrative Sanctions in EU Law’ (2012) 5 Review of European Administrative Law 5

Adrienne de Moor-van Vugt, ‘Netwerken en de Europeanisering van het Toezicht’ (2011) 3 Sociaal-economische Wetgeving: Tijdschrift voor Europees en Economisch Recht 94

Moseley A and Thomann E, ‘A Behavioural Model of Heuristics and Biases in Frontline Policy Implementation’ (2021) 49 Policy & Politics 49

Mustert L and Scholten M, ‘Controls in the Case of the EU Civil Aviation Safety Rules’ in Scholten M and Brenninkmeijer A (eds), Controlling EU Agencies: The Rule of Law in a Multi-jurisdictional Legal Order (Edward Elgar 2020)

Yannis Papadopoulos, ‘Accountability and Multi-level Governance: More Accountability, Less Democracy?’ (2010) 33 West European Politics 1030

Yannis Papadopoulos, ‘Problems of Democratic Accountability in Network and Multilevel Governance’ (2007) 13 European Law Journal 469

Pires, RRC ‘Beyond the fear of discretion: Flexibility, performance, and accountability in the management of regulatory bureaucracies’ (2011) 5(1) Regulation & Governance 43

Sacha Prechal (et al), ‘‘Europeanisation’ of the Law: Consequences for the Dutch Judiciary’ (2015) Raad voor de Rechtspraak Research Memoranda

Mr. M.P.M. van Rijsbergen en Mr. drs. M. Scholten, Zaak C-270/12 (ESMA-short selling) als opvolger van de Meroni- en Romano-non-delegatiedoctrine (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Europees Recht, aflevering 2/3, 2014)

Rasnaca, Zane, et al., eds. Effective Enforcement of EU Labour Law. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2022.

Röben V, ‘The Enforcement Authority of International Institutions’ in Armin von Bogdandy and others (eds), The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions (Springer 2010)

Root V, ‘The Compliance Process’ (2019) 94 Indiana Law Journal 203

Thomas Schillemans, ‘Redundant Accountability: The Joint Impact of Horizontal and Vertical Accountability on Autonomous Agencies’ (2010) 34 Public Administration Quarterly 300

Miroslava Scholten, ‘Independent, hence unaccountable? The need for a broader debate on accountability of the executive’ (2011) 4(1) Review of European Administrative Law

Mirslava Scholten and van Rijsbergen M, ‘The Limits of Agencification in the European Union’ (2014) 15 German Law Journal 1223

Miroslava Scholten, The Political Accountability of EU and US Independent Regulatory Agencies (Brill: Nijhoff Studies in European Union Law 2014)

Miroslava Scholten, ‘Mind the trend! Enforcement of EU law has been moving to ‘Brussels’’ (Journal of European Public Policy, 24:9, 1348-1366, 2017)

Miroslava Scholten & Michiel Luchtman, ‘Law Enforcement by EU Authorities – Implications for Political and Judicial Accountability’ (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017)

Miroslava Scholten & Daniel Scholten, ‘From Regulation to Enforcement in the EU Policy Cycle: A New Type of Functional Spillover?’ (2016) 54(6) Journal of Common Market Studies 1

Miroslava Scholten, ‘Shared Tasks, but Separated Controls: Building the System of Control for Shared Administration in an EU Multi-Jurisdictional Setting’ (2019) 10 European Journal of Risk Regulation 538

Miroslava Scholten, Maggetti M and Papadopoulos Y, ‘Towards a Comprehensive System of Controls for EU Agencies’ in Scholten M and Brenninkmeijer A (eds), Controlling EU Agencies: The Rule of Law in a Multi-jurisdictional Legal Order (Edward Elgar 2020)

Miroslava Scholten, ‘EU (Shared) Law Enforcement: Who Does What and How?’ in Alberti J, Costamagna F and Montaldo S, European Union Law Enforcement: The Evolution of Sanctioning Powers (Routledge 2021)

Shavell S, Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law (Harvard University Press 2009)

Short JL ‘The politics of regulatory enforcement and compliance: Theorizing and operationalizing political influences’ (2019) Regulation & Governance

Stefan O, ‘Soft law and the enforcement of EU law’ in Jakab A, Kochenov D (eds), The Enforcement of EU law and Values: Ensuring Member States’ Compliance (Oxford University Press 2017)

Thaler, RH and Sunstein CR, ‘Libertarian Paternalism’ (2003) 93(2) American Economic Review 175

Thomann E and Sager F, ‘Moving beyond Legal Compliance: Innovative Approaches to EU Multilevel Implementation’ (2017) 24 Journal of European Public Policy 1253

Thomann E and Zhelyazkova A, ‘Moving beyond (Non-)Compliance: The Customization of European Union Policies in 27 Countries’ (2017) 24 Journal of European Public Policy 1269

Dimiter Toshkov, ‘Taking Stock: a Review of Quantitative Studies of Transposition and Implementation of EU Law’ (2010) Institute for European Integration Research Working paper No. 01/2010

Oliver Treib, ‘Implementing and Complying with EU Governance Outputs’ (2008) 3(5) Living Reviews in European Governance 1

Ton van den Brink, Michiel Luchtman & Miroslava Scholten, Sovereignty in the shared legal order of the EU – Core values of regulation and enforcement (Intersentia, 2015)

Van Kreij L, ‘Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Understanding EU Enforcement Regimes’ (2019) 10 European Journal of Risk Regulation 439

Van Loo R, ‘Regulatory Monitors: Policing Firms In The Compliance Era’ (2019) 119 Columbia Law Review 369

Van Rijsbergen M and Foster J, ‘“Rating” ESMA’s Accountability: “AAA” Status’ in Scholten M and Luchtman M, Law Enforcement by EU Authorities: Implications for Political and Judicial Accountability (Edward Elgar Publishing 2017)

Van Rijsbergen M and Simoncini M, ‘Controlling ESMAs Enforcement Powers’ in Scholten M and Brenninkmeijer A (eds), Controlling EU Agencies: The Rule of Law in a Multi-jurisdictional Legal Order (Edward Elgar 2020)

Van Rijsbergen, M and Scholten, M (2016). ‚ESMA Inspecting: The Implications for Judicial Control under Shared Enforcement’ (2016) 7(3) European Journal of Risk Regulation 569

Verbruggen P, ‘Gorillas in the Closet? Public and Private Actors in the Enforcement of Transnational Private Regulation’ (2013) 7 Regulation & Governance 512

Esther Versluis, ‘Even Rules, Uneven Practices: Opening the ‘Black Box’ of EU law in Action’ (2007) 30 West European Politics 50

Esther Versluis, Enforcement Matters: Enforcement and Compliance of European Directives in Four Member States (Eburon, 2003)

Stephen Weatherill, ‘The principle of mutual recognition: it doesn’t work because it doesn’t exist’ 2018, 43(2) European Law Review 224

Rob Widdershoven, ‘Developing Administrative Law in Europe: Natural Convergence or imposed Uniformity?’ (2014) 7(2) Review of European Administrative Law 5

Rob Widdershoven & Milan Remac, ‘General Principles of Law in Administrative Law under European Influence’ (2012) 20 European Review of Private Law 381

Zhelyazkova A, ‘Justifying Enforcement or Avoiding Blame? The Transparency of Compliance Assessments in the European Union’ (2020) West European Politics 1

Enforcement in the area of Freedom, Security and Justice

Almond P and van Erp J ‘Regulation and governance versus criminology: Disciplinary divides, intersections, and opportunities’ (2020) 14(2) Regulation & Governance, 167

Bowles R, Faure M and Garoupa N, ‘The Scope of Criminal Law and Criminal Sanctions: An Economic View and Policy Implications’ (2008) 35 Journal of Law and Society 389

Charlotte Claverie-Rousset, ‘The Admissibility of Evidence in Criminal Proceedings between European Union Member States’ (2013) 3 European Criminal Law Review 152

Mariana Gkliati, The next phase of the European Border and Coast Guard: towards operational effectiveness (EU Law Analysis Blog, 2018)

Mariana Gkliati, The new European Border and Coast Guard: Do increased powers come with enhanced accountability? (EU Law Analysis Blog, 2019)

Mariana Gkliati, European Border and Coast Guard: The EU force of securitisation in migration governance (RLI blog on Refugee Law and Forced Migration, 2019)

Xavier Groussot & Ziva Popov, ‘What’s wrong with OLAF? Accountability, Due Process and Criminal Justice in European Anti-fraud Policy’ (2010) 47 Common Market Law Review 605

Jan Inghelram, ‘Judicial Review of Investigative Acts of the European Anti-fraud Office (OLAF): A Search for a Balance’ (2012) 49 Common Market Law Review 601

Jansen, O (ed), Administrative sanctions in the European Union. (Intersentia 2013)

Ligeti K and Robinson G, ‘Sword, Shield and Cloud: Toward a European System of Public-Private Orders for Electronic Evidence in Criminal Matters?’ in Mitsilegas V and Vavoula N (eds), Surveillance and Privacy in the Digital Age: European, Transatlantic and Global Perspectives (Oxford University Press 2021)

Michiel Luchtman & John Vervaele, ‘European Agencies for Criminal Justice and Shared Enforcement (Eurojust and the European Public Prosecutor’s Office)’ (2014) 10 Utrecht Law Review 132

Michiel Luchtman & John Vervaele, ‘Enforcing the Market Abuse Regime: Towards an Integrated Model of Criminal and Administrative Law Enforcement in the European Union?’ (2014) 5 New Journal of European Criminal Law 192

Michiel Luchtman, ‘Choice of forum and the prosecution of cross-border crime in the European Union – What role for the legality principle?’ in Michiel Luchtman (ed.), Choice of forum in cooperation against EU financial crime – Freedom, security and justice and the protection of specific EU-interests (Eleven, 2013)

Michiel Luchtman, European Cooperation between Financial Supervisory Authorities, Tax Authorities and Judicial Authorities (Intersentia, 2008)

Meyer F, ‘Protection of fundamental rights in a multi-jurisdictional
setting of the EU‘ in Scholten M and Brenninkmeijer A, Controlling EU Agencies: The Rule of Law in a Multi-jurisdictional Legal Order (Edward Elgar 2020)

J.W. Ouwerkerk, ‘Balancing mutual trust and fundamental rights protection in the context of the European Arrest Warrant. What role for the gravity of the underlying offence in cjeu case law?’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 2018, volume 28, issue 2

Andrea Ryan, Towards a system of European criminal justice: the problem of admissibility of evidence (Routledge, 2014)Oriola Sallavaci, ‘Strengthening cross-border law enforcement cooperation in the EU: the Prüm network of data exchange’ European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research September 2018, Volume 24, Issue 3

Nathalie A. Smuha, ‘Towards the EU Harmonization of Access to Cross-Border E-Evidence: Challenges for Fundamental Rights & Consistency’ Vol. 8, 1/2018 European Criminal Law Review 83Melissa van den Broek, Preventing money laundering (Eleven, 2015)

John Vervaele & Michiel Luchtman, ‘Criminal Law Enforcement of EU Harmonised Financial Policies – The Need for a shared criminal policy’ in Ferry de Jong, Overarching views of Crime and Deviancy – Rethinking the Legacy of the Utrecht School (Eleven International Publishers, 2015)

John Vervaele, ‘The European Union and harmonization of the Criminal law enforcement of Union policies: in search of a criminal law policy?’ in Magnus Ulväng & Iain Cameron (eds.), Essays on Criminalization & Sanctions (Iustus förlag, 2014)

John Vervaele, ‘Union Law and harmonisation of national economic and financial criminal law’ in Edwin Bleichrodt (et al) (eds.), Onbegrensd strafrecht- Liber Amicorum Hans de Doelder (Wolf Legal Publishers, 2014)

Anne Weyembergh and Chloé Brière, ‘The future cooperation between OLAF and the European Public Prosecutor’s Office’ 2018 Vol. 9(1) New Journal of European Criminal Law 62

Competition Law

Enforcement in the financial markets

Kern Alexander & Niamh Moloney (eds.), Law Reform and Financial Markets (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011)

Raffaele D’Ambrosio, ‘The temporary intervention powers of the European Banking Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority: content and limits’, ERA Forum August 2018, Volume 19, Issue 1.

Deirdre Curtin, ‘Accountable Independence’ of the European Central Bank: Seeing the Logics of Transparency (2017) European Law Journal 23.1-2

Van Erp, J, ‘Naming without shaming: The publication of sanctions in the Dutch financial market’ (2011) 5(3) Regulation & Governance 287

Gijsbert Ter Kuile, Laura Wissink & Willem Bovenschen, ‘Tailor-made accountability within the Single Supervisory Mechanism’ (2015) 52 Common Market Law Review, Issue 1

Niamh Moloney, ‘Supervision in the Wake of the Financial Crisis: Achieving Effective ’Law in Action’ – A Challenge for the EU’ in Eddy Wymeersch, Klaus Hopt & Guido Ferrarini, Financial Regulation and Supervision. A Post Crisis Analysis (Oxford University Press, 2012)

Annetje Ottow, ‘The new European supervisory architecture of the financial markets’ in Michelle Everson, Cosimo Monda & Ellen Vos (eds.), EU Agencies in – and – the external relations of the EU (Kluwer Law International, 2014)

Miroslava Scholten & Annetje Ottow, ‘Institutional Design of Enforcement in the EU: The Case of Financial Markets’ (2014) 10 Utrecht Law Review 80

Pierre Schammo, ‘Actions and inactions in the investigation of breaches of Union Law by the European Supervisory Authorities’ Common Market Law Review 2018, Issue 5Stanislaw Tosza, Criminal Liability of Managers in Europe. Punishing Excessive Risk (Hart Publishing, 2019)

Marloes van Rijsbergen & Miroslava Scholten, ‘ESMA Inspecting: The Implications for Judicial Control under Shared Enforcement’ (2016) 7 European Journal of Risk Regulation 569

Laura Wissink, Ton Duijkersloot & Rob Widdershoven,’Shifts in Competences between Member States and EU in the New Supervisory System for Credit Institutions and their Consequences for Judicial Protection’ (2014) 10 Utrecht Law Review 92