On Friday 17 March RENFORCE organized a symposium with the title: From better enforcement to better lawmaking. Speakers included Prof. Gert Jan Veerman (Maastricht University), Dr. Mira Scholten (Utrecht University), Mr. Rob van de Westelaken (European Parliament), and ms. Anne-Jel Hoelen (Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets). The symposium sought to bridge not only lawmaking and enforcement but equally the EU and national levels; academia and practice as well as the political/technocratic divide.
On March 10, 2023, prof. John Vervaele has given his farewell speech ‘Towards a European Reassessment of Punitive Enforcement’ at the Aula of Utrecht University. In this blog post, I am discussing the main ideas of his speech and career – Europeanisation of EU law enforcement – and, in this way, I aim at giving my personal gratitude to prof. Vervaele. It has been a great honour and pleasure of working with you, John!
Continue reading “John Vervaele’s farewell speech and legacy in the field of enforcement of EU laws“
In 2022, dr. Olga Batura, dr. Malgorzata Kozak and dr. Mira Scholten conducted an investigation into the legal and practical aspects of the independence of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in the electronic communications sector commissioned by the Body of European Regulators of Electronic Communications (BEREC). The research combined elements of the ‘law in books’ and ‘law in action’ approaches and consisted of a literature review, comparative legal analysis, expert interviews, a survey of BEREC members, a workshop with NRA experts (including case studies) and focused interviews with selected NRAs. This blog post gives a short overview of the mentioned investigation.
The study argues that full independence should be understood as the unity of practices conducive to de jure and de facto independence, meaning that the NRA is properly established, empowered, resourced, effectively functioning and accountable. The NRA’s independence decreases with each bad practice, meaning that the presence of even one bad practice in any dimension of independence implies that the NRA lacks independence to some degree. A culture of independence needs to be nurtured within NRAs and the government as a whole to support the practice and proper application of EU independence standards.Continue reading “The legal and practical aspects of the independence of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in the electronic communications sector”
On 20 January 2023, Liebrich Hiemstra defended her PhD dissertation which shows the financial side of the energy sector: the trade in energy derivatives and how such trading is supervised by EU and national regulatory authorities. One of the main findings is that the supervision in this sector is too opaque and that the effectiveness of the legal remedies available to market players is questionable.Continue reading “Trading in Energy Derivatives: who’s watching?“
On December 15 and 16, the University of Luxembourg commemorated the work of the Doctoral Training Unit on Enforcement in Multi-Level Regulatory Systems (DTU REMS), which culminated with a closing conference and the unveiling of their published joint work, Enforcement Challenges in Multi-Level Regulatory Systems, Revealing Weaknesses and Offering Solutions (Nomos). The conference began with a presentation of the contributing PhD graduates and their supervisors. Afterwards, Dean Katalin Ligeti, coordinator of the program, was joined by the Program Manager of the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR), Marie-Claude Marx, and the Vice-Rector for Research of the University of Luxembourg, Professor Jens Kreisel, to share remarks on the project.
Disclaimer: All opinions in this blog reflect the views of the author, not of the Dutch DPA.
This month, the editors of the blog issue a ‘news type’ of blog post. We would like to bring the readers’ attention to publications related to the central theme of enforcement that the EU Commission has made in the last month.
The recent events in Ukraine brought to light once again the difficulties faced by refugees at the beginning and during flight and resettlement. One of the main topics that are creating tension and increased solidarity is the fate and safety of the children separated from their families and parents. In this context, the first-time activation of the (TPD) for Ukrainian refugees sets an unprecedented step forward for the right of unaccompanied minors fleeing war and serious harm to family reunification. This bold political choice also draws attention to the urgent need for revision of the current legislation regulating family reunification for international refugees or beneficiaries of subsidiary protection.
Mira: The topic of supervision of markets and enforcement of norms and policies in the EU is an exciting, yet complex one to discuss, to design and to research (see my new chapter in Maggetti et al. 2022 aiming at capturing all relevant elements and dilemmas). The classic debates concern such pertinent issues as to which types of supervision – public and/or private, EU and/or national, compliance and/or deterrent oriented, to name but a few – should be most optimal to ensure specific policy goals and promotion of values. Next to these, new trends and challenges – globalisation and digitalisation of markets and hence enforcement, promoting sustainability and yet competitive businesses, etc. – add to the ‘to do’ list for researchers and practitioners. Knowledge accumulation and exchange on these questions across jurisdictions, policy fields and disciplines are thus essential to advance academic and policy debates, and this blog post aims to contribute to this. It shows the pertinent research and policy questions and research conclusions of five 2022 LLM Law & Economics master graduates who have written their impressive master theses on the topics of their choice in the area of supervision of markets, enforcement and agencies under my supervision. Their results and suggestions for future research on integer (banking) supervision, sustainable, fair (digital) competition and finance are impressive and aim to promote achieving policy objectives and boost further research attention and discussion in enforcing the areas of banking, financial, digital markets and sustainability goals and beyond.
The past years have seen a progressive expansion of the operational powers of the European Asylum Support Office (EASO). As formerly discussed, EASO’s increasing involvement in the processing of asylum applications at the Greek Hotspots confirmed the need for Member States to integrate the EU support within their domestic system, while keeping the primary administrative responsibility for asylum applications. This trend toward EU direct enforcement is justified by the need to improve the implementation and overall functioning of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) and has resulted in the adoption of Regulation 2021/2303 establishing the EU Agency for Asylum (EUAA).
This short post explains how the powers of this new ‘fully-fledged’ agency may contribute to a better level of enforcement, though its normative setup does not fully reflect the practice of joint processing of asylum applications already undertaken by EASO.